Shannon & Weaver, Schramm And Barnlund Transaction Models of communication

Communication is the effective transmission of a message from one person to another.

Shannon and Weaver model of communication was created by two people: Shannon and Weaver. Claude Elwood Shannon was an American mathematician and Electronic engineer in 1948, while Weaver was an American scientist. The model has a few basic concepts to it: Sender, Encoder, Channel, Decoder, Receiver and Noise.

The sender is the person that creates and sends the message. The encoder is the transmitter that helps convert messages into signals, for example sound waves. Channel is the type of medium used to send the message, e.g a mobile network. Decoder is the person that receives the message and then breaks it down to understand it. The receiver is the recipient of the message. Noise is any disturbance that may lead to the receiver receiving an incorrect message






The second model is the Schramm model. This model was proposed by Wilber Schramm in 1954.

Schramm emphasises that the recipient of the message should be able to understand the message sent by the sender, and if (s)he is unable to decode the information, then the message is essentially useless.

In addition, Schramm states that the communication between the sender and the recipient is incomplete unless the sender receives feedback from the recipient accordingly. According to this model, there are certain factors that may play a role if the recipient is unable to either give feedback or to decode the message: people from different cultures, religions or backgrounds may interpret a message in different ways.


The third model of communication was proposed by Barnlund and is called the transactional model of communication.

In this model, both the sender and the receiver are known as “communicators”. This model is also called the circular model of communication as the sender becomes the receiver just as fast as the receiver becomes the sender. This is because they are both sending messages simultaneously.

Similar to the other two models, factors like noise can affect the flow of communication, or how the receiver interprets the message.

Certain factors may influence how the message is interpreted: body language and cultural differences



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