Author: baltzermusherure

George Orwell – Politics and the English Language

Most people agree that the English language is collapsing. Any attempt to save the old-fashioned language is for sentimental reasons. It’s believed that language naturally grows and we don’t shape it overtime.

The decline of a language is due to economic and political reasons, not just from an individual writer. English becomes ugly and wrong because of our foolish thoughts, but the ugliness of the language makes it easier to have foolish thoughts. Modern written English has many bad habits that can change if effort is put in, which will lead to clear thinking.

A dying metaphor is one that is overused and has lost its meaning. For example: toe the line, hotbed, achilles’ heel. Most of these are used without an understanding of their meaning, with a mix of incompatible metaphors. Some have been taken out of context without the writer realising. For example, toe of the line can be written tow of the line.

Verbal false limbs inflate the word making it longer than it should be. For example, serve the purpose of, take effect. Instead of being a single word, a verb becomes a phrase. The passive voice is used more than the active, and noun constructions are used instead of gerunds (by examination of instead of by examining). Simple conjunctions are replaced with phrases like “in view of”, “the fact that” and the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by big commonplaces like “deserving of serious consideration”.

Pretentious diction – words like element, virtual, basic are used to give objectivity to biased judgements. Adjectives like historic, unforgettable, are used to glorify the dishonourable process of international politics. words like cul de sac are used to portray elegance. It is easier to fabricate words like impermissible and extramarital than to think the English words that will cover ones meaning. This causes more vagueness.

I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all.

Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account.

Modern writing consists in combining long strips of words, already done by another, and presenting the words inaccurately. Using ready-made phrases, the phrases sound pleasant.

A metaphor is meant to bring a visual image. When these images clash, like “the fascist octopus has swung is swan song” the writer is not really thinking.

Currently, it is true that political writing is bad writing. When watching a tired hack repeat the same phrases – “bestial, atrocities” it feels like watching a dummy speak. Speaking like this favours political conformity.

Right now, it is impossible to ‘keep out of politics’. All issues are political issues, and politics is hatred and lies. When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer.

If thought corrupts language, language can corrupt thought. A bad use can spread by imitation even to those who should know better.

The fall of our language can be stopped. Silly words and expressions like ” explore every avenue” were discarded by the jeers of a few journalists. If people tried, we could reduce the amount of latin and greek in a sentence, and take our foreign phrases. The defence of the English language implies more than this, and it is best to say what it does not imply.

It has nothing to do with archaism, nor with making English too simple, but rather to let the meaning choose the word. Do not surrender to words. Thinking of a concrete object and describing, you tend to look for the best words to fit it. It is better to get one’s meaning as clear as possible through pictures and sensations.

 

 

 

Advertisements

JOURNALISM POST LEVESON

The Leveson Inquiry = A public, judge-led inquiry to look at the culture, practice and ethics of the press following the News international phone hacking scandal

In 2007, Clive Goodman, royal editor of News of The World (NOTW) and private investigator Glenn Mulcaire were convicted of illegal interceptions of phone messages.

According to NOTW, this was an isolated incident, but The Guardian claimed it extended beyond Goodman and Mulcaire.

In 2011, after a civil settlement with Sienna Miller, the police set up a new investigation called “Operation Weeting.” In July 2011, it was revealed that NOTW reporters hacked the voicemail of murder victim Milly Dowler.

Prime Minister David Cameron announced that a public inquiry would be chaired by Lord Justice Leveson on 13 July 2011.

The inquiry looked at 2 parts:

Part 1: the culture, practice and and ethics of press and politicians and the press and police; it is to consider the extent to which the current regulatory regime has failed and whether there has been a failure to act upon any previous warnings about media misconduct.”

Part 2: the extent of unlawful or improper conduct within News international, other media organisations or other organisations. It will also consider the extent to which any relevant police force investigated allegations relating to News international, and whether the police received corrupt payments or were otherwise complicit in misconduct.

The Inquiry

The inquiry published the Leveson Report in November 2012, which reviewed the general culture and ethics of the British media, and made recommendations for a new independent body to replace the existing Press Complaints Commission, which would have to be recognised by the state through new laws.

Prime Minister David Cameron, under whose direction the inquiry had been established, said that he welcomed many of the findings, but declined to enact the requisite legislation.

Leveson’s Recommendations

Leveson found the existing press complaints commission is not sufficient and recommends a new independent body which would have a range of sanctions available to it including fines and direction of the prominence

Membership of the body would be voluntary,, but incentivised by schemes like kitemark and inquisitorial arbitration service for handling tort claims like libel and breach of privacy, and by allowing exemplary damages to be awarded in cases brought against non-participants in the scheme, something not usually part of the English law.

Leveson rejected the characterisation of his proposal as “statutory regulation of the press”

 

Fallout Continues to this day

A new body was set called the Press Recognition Panel. It is an independent body set up to judge whether press regulators meet the Royal Charter Criteria.

Newspapers refused this body and formed an IPSO (Independent Press Standard Organisation). Set up in 2014, the IPSO claims to be the independent regulator of the newspaper and magazine industry.

Are MP’s right to be concerned that IPSO has never fined a newspaper? Has the behaviour of the press improved since the phone hacking scandal?

IMPRESS is the only one of these formally backed by Press Recognition Panel .

The application by IMPRESS to become the UK’s first state approved press regulator was approved and it was granted a Royal Charter in October 2016

 

 

 

How To Do An Interview

1. RESEARCH

Make sure you do your research before the interview or you’ll just make yourself look stupid.

2. PREPARING THE INTERVIEW 

  You need to decide how you’re going to record the interview. If the interview is a really short one, or you’re just interviewing one person, you can do it with a pen and paper. But if the interview is long, or you’re interviewing more than one person, a dictaphone, a digital recorder or phone will work fine.

3. PREPARING QUESTIONS: THE SCRIPT AND THE PROMPT

Have a list of questions to ask the interviewee/subject. Have about 6-12 questions prepared. But, when interviewing, listen to what the interviewee is saying and don’t just ask the prepared questions like a script. For example, he may have made a good point, and you can use that chance to ask him to expand on that point, instead of asking them your next pre-prepared questions. An interview is like a conversation: let the convo flow and ask your pre-prepared questions when the interview is becoming repetitive or boring.

4. ONLY ASK QUESTIONS 

Even if the interviewee is saying things that you really disagree with, don’t start argument to prove them wrong. Your job is to ask questions.

5. YOUR FIRST QUESTION

“In your own words, can you tell me a little about your background?”

This is a very good warm up question because:

  • it gets the interviewee to open up and relax a little since they’re talking abou themselves
  • It’s a  chance to check and see if the audio is good on your recording device
  • It’s an open ended question – the interviewee could talk about their childhood, their tim in uni, their career etc.

6. ASK OPEN QUESTIONS, AVOID CLOSED ONES

You can get a bigger, longer better answer by asking an open ended question rather than a closed one.

7. DON’T INTERRUPT

You might stop them in their tracks when they’re about to say something really useful.

8. HOW TO SHUT SOMEBODY UP

If they keep talking and you want them to stop, just tell them you have one final question. This lets them know the interview is almost done.

9. YOUR REAL FINAL QUESTION

Even if you’ve already asked your final question, end the interview with “have you anything further that you’d like to add?” More often than not they’ll say np, but they might say something smart that hasn’t been covered in your questions.

10. FOLLOW UPS

In case you didn’t cover everything in your interview, you could always get in touch with the person you interviewed, thank them for the previous interview, and tell them how there’s one or two things you missed or there’s something you’d like to go over again. The interviewee may be happy to see that you want to make that effort to ensure everything is as it should be

 

 

Metaphors, Similies, idioms & Clichés: A Definitive Guide

  1. METAPHOR = a figure of speech that describes an object or action in a way that isn’t literally true, but helps explain an idea or make a comparison e.g Time is a thief – Time isn’t really stealing anything, this metaphor just indicates that time passes quickly and our lives pass us by.

    Metaphors can be deployed in journalism to great effect

2. SIMILE = a figure of speech that makes a comparison, showing similarities between two things, using words “like” “as” or “than” to do so e.g He is as cunning as a fox.

3. IDIOM = a figure of speech that has a certain meaning that is different from the meanings of each word on its own e.g it’s raining cats and dogs. Of course it isn’t literally raining cats and dogs, this just means it’s raining heavily. 

4. CLICHE = a figure of speech that has been so overused that it has become boring and unoriginal. Clichés are also dangerous to a writer because they tend to stereotype people and situations.

 

Section Eight: Privacy

Principle

To ensure that broadcasters avoid any unwarranted infringement of privacy in programmes and in connection with obtaining material included in programmes.

Rule

8.1 Any infringement of privacy in programmes, or in connection with obtaining material included in programmes, must be warranted.

Meaning of “warranted”: In this section “warranted” has a particular meaning. It means that where broadcasters wish to justify an infringement of privacy as warranted, they should be able to demonstrate why in the particular circumstances of the case, it is warranted. If the reason is that it is in the public interest, then the broadcaster should be able to demonstrate that the public interest outweighs the right to privacy. Examples of public interest would include revealing or detecting crime, protecting public health or safety, exposing misleading claims made by individuals or organisations or disclosing incompetence that affects the public.

Practices to be followed (8.2 to 8.22)

Private lives, public places and legitimate expectation of privacy

Meaning of “legitimate expectation of privacy”: Legitimate expectations of privacy will vary according to the place and nature of the information, activity or condition in question, the extent to which it is in the public domain (if at all) and whether the individual concerned is already in the public eye. There may be circumstances where people can reasonably expect privacy even in a public place. Some activities and conditions may be of such a private nature that filming or recording, even in a public place, could involve an infringement of privacy. People under investigation or in the public eye, and their immediate family and friends, retain the right to a private life, although private behaviour can raise issues of legitimate public interest.

8.2 Information which discloses the location of a person’s home or family should not be revealed without permission, unless it is warranted.

8.3 When people are caught up in events which are covered by the news they still have a right to privacy in both the making and the broadcast of a programme, unless it is warranted to infringe it. This applies both to the time when these events are taking place and to any later programmes that revisit those events.

8.4 Broadcasters should ensure that words, images or actions filmed or recorded in, or broadcast from, a public place, are not so private that prior consent is required before broadcast from the individual or organisation concerned, unless broadcasting without their consent is warranted. Consent

8.5 Any infringement of privacy in the making of a programme should be with the person’s and/or organisation’s consent or be otherwise warranted.

8.6 If the broadcast of a programme would infringe the privacy of a person or organisation, consent should be obtained before the relevant material is broadcast, unless the infringement of privacy is warranted. (Callers to phone-in shows are deemed to have given consent to the broadcast of their contribution.)

8.7 If an individual or organisation’s privacy is being infringed, and they ask that the filming, recording or live broadcast be stopped, the broadcaster should do so, unless it is warranted to continue.

8.8 When filming or recording in institutions, organisations or other agencies, permission should be obtained from the relevant authority or management, unless it is warranted to film or record without permission. Individual consent of employees or others whose appearance is incidental or where they are essentially anonymous members of the general public will not normally be required.

 

However, in potentially sensitive places such as ambulances, hospitals, schools, prisons or police stations, separate consent should normally be obtained before filming or recording and for broadcast from those in sensitive situations (unless not obtaining consent is warranted). If the individual will not be identifiable in the programme then separate consent for broadcast will not be required. Gathering information, sound or images and the re-use of material

8.9 The means of obtaining material must be proportionate in all the circumstances and in particular to the subject matter of the programme.

8.10 Broadcasters should ensure that the re-use of material, i.e. use of material originally filmed or recorded for one purpose and then used in a programme for another purpose or used in a later or different programme, does not create an unwarranted infringement of privacy. This applies both to material obtained from others and the broadcaster’s own material.

8.11 Doorstepping for factual programmes should not take place unless a request for an interview has been refused or it has not been possible to request an interview, or there is good reason to believe that an investigation will be frustrated if the subject is approached openly, and it is warranted to doorstep. However, normally broadcasters may, without prior warning interview, film or record people in the news when in public places. (See “practice to be followed” 8.15.)

Meaning of “doorstepping”: Doorstepping is the filming or recording of an interview or attempted interview with someone, or announcing that a call is being filmed or recorded for broadcast purposes, without any prior warning. It does not, however, include vox-pops (sampling the views of random members of the public).

 

8.12 Broadcasters can record telephone calls between the broadcaster and the other party if they have, from the outset of the call, identified themselves, explained the purpose of the call and that the call is being recorded for possible broadcast (if that is the case) unless it is warranted not to do one or more of these practices. If at a later stage it becomes clear that a call that has been recorded will be broadcast (but this was not explained to the other party at the time of the call) then the broadcaster must obtain consent before broadcast from the other party, unless it is warranted not to do so. (See “practices to be followed” 7.14 and 8.13 to 8.15.)

8.13 Surreptitious filming or recording should only be used where it is warranted. Normally, it will only be warranted if: • there is prima facie evidence of a story in the public interest; and • there are reasonable grounds to suspect that further material evidence could be obtained; and • it is necessary to the credibility and authenticity of the programme. (See “practices to be followed” 7.14, 8.12, 8.14 and 8.15.)

Meaning of “surreptitious filming or recording”: Surreptitious filming or recording includes the use of long lenses or recording devices, as well as leaving an unattended camera or recording device on private property without the full and informed consent of the occupiers or their agent. It may also include recording telephone conversations without the knowledge of the other party, or deliberately continuing a recording when the other party thinks that it has come to an end. 8.14 Material gained by surreptitious filming and recording should only be broadcast when it is warranted.

8.15 Surreptitious filming or recording, doorstepping or recorded ‘wind-up’ calls to obtain material for entertainment purposes may be warranted if it is intrinsic to the entertainment and does not amount to a significant infringement of privacy such as to cause significant annoyance, distress or embarrassment. The resulting material should not be broadcast without the consent of those involved. However if the individual and/or organisation is not identifiable in the programme then consent for broadcast will not be required. (See “practices to be followed” 7.14 and 8.11 to 8.14.)

Suffering and distress

8.16 Broadcasters should not take or broadcast footage or audio of people caught up in emergencies, victims of accidents or those suffering a personal tragedy, even in a public place, where that results in an infringement of privacy, unless it is warranted or the people concerned have given consent.

8.17 People in a state of distress should not be put under pressure to take part in a programme or provide interviews, unless it is warranted.

8.18 Broadcasters should take care not to reveal the identity of a person who has died or of victims of accidents or violent crimes, unless and until it is clear that the next of kin have been informed of the event or unless it is warranted.

8.19 Broadcasters should try to reduce the potential distress to victims and/or relatives when making or broadcasting programmes intended to examine past events that involve trauma to individuals (including crime) unless it is warranted to do otherwise. This applies to dramatic reconstructions and factual dramas, as well as factual programmes. • In particular, so far as is reasonably practicable, surviving victims and/or the immediate families of those whose experience is to feature in a programme, should be informed of the plans for the programme and its intended broadcast, even if the events or material to be broadcast have been in the public domain in the past.

People under sixteen and vulnerable people

8.20 Broadcasters should pay particular attention to the privacy of people under sixteen. They do not lose their rights to privacy because, for example, of the fame or notoriety of their parents or because of events in their schools.

8.21 Where a programme features an individual under sixteen or a vulnerable person in a way that infringes privacy, consent must be obtained from:

• a parent, guardian or other person of eighteen or over in loco parentis; and

• wherever possible, the individual concerned;

• unless the subject matter is trivial or uncontroversial and the participation minor, or it is warranted to proceed without consent.

\8.22 Persons under sixteen and vulnerable people should not be questioned about private matters without the consent of a parent, guardian or other person of eighteen or over in loco parentis (in the case of persons under sixteen), or a person with primary responsibility for their care (in the case of a vulnerable person), unless it is warranted to proceed without consent.

Meaning of “vulnerable people”: This varies, but may include those with learning difficulties, those with mental health problems, the bereaved, people with brain damage or forms of dementia, people who have been traumatised or who are sick or terminally ill.

 

Section Seven: Fairness

Principle

To ensure that broadcasters avoid unjust or unfair treatment of individuals or organisations in programmes.

Rule

7.1 Broadcasters must avoid unjust or unfair treatment of individuals or organisations in programmes.

Practices to be followed (7.2 to 7.14 below)

Dealing fairly with contributors and obtaining informed consent

2. Broadcasters and programme makers should normally be fair in their dealings with potential contributors to programmes unless, exceptionally, it is justified to do otherwise.

3. Where a person is invited to make a contribution to a programme (except when the subject matter is trivial or their participation minor) they should normally, at an appropriate stage:

• be told the nature and purpose of the programme, what the programme is about and be given a clear explanation of why they were asked to contribute and when (if known) and where it is likely to be first broadcast;

• be told what kind of contribution they are expected to make, for example live, pre-recorded, interview, discussion, edited, unedited, etc.;

• be informed about the areas of questioning and, wherever possible, the nature of other likely contributions;

• be made aware of any significant changes to the programme as it develops which might reasonably affect their original consent to participate, and which might cause material unfairness;

• be told the nature of their contractual rights and obligations and those of the programme maker and broadcaster in relation to their contribution; and

• be given clear information, if offered an opportunity to preview the programme, about whether they will be able to effect any changes to it. Taking these measures is likely to result in the consent that is given being ‘informed consent’ (referred to in this section and the rest of the Code as “consent”). It may be fair to withhold all or some of this information where it is justified in the public interest or under other provisions of this section of the Code.

4. If a contributor is under sixteen, consent should normally be obtained from a parent or guardian, or other person of eighteen or over in loco parentis. In particular, persons under sixteen should not be asked for views on matters likely to be beyond their capacity to answer properly without such consent.

5. In the case of persons over sixteen who are not in a position to give consent, a person of eighteen or over with primary responsibility for their care should normally give it on their behalf. In particular, persons not in a position to give consent should not be asked for views on matters likely to be beyond their capacity to answer properly without such consent.

6. When a programme is edited, contributions should be represented fairly.

7. Guarantees given to contributors, for example relating to the content of a programme, confidentiality or anonymity, should normally be honoured.

8.  Broadcasters should ensure that the re-use of material, i.e. use of material originally filmed or recorded for one purpose and then used in a programme for another purpose or used in a later or different programme, does not create unfairness. This applies both to material obtained from others and the broadcaster’s own material.

Opportunity to contribute and proper consideration of facts

9. Before broadcasting a factual programme, including programmes examining past events, broadcasters should take reasonable care to satisfy themselves that:

• material facts have not been presented, disregarded or omitted in a way that is unfair to an individual or organisation; and

• anyone whose omission could be unfair to an individual or organisation has been offered an opportunity to contribute.

10. Programmes – such as dramas and factually-based dramas – should not portray facts, events, individuals or organisations in a way which is unfair to an individual or organisation.

11. If a programme alleges wrongdoing or incompetence or makes other significant allegations, those concerned should normally be given an appropriate and timely opportunity to respond.

12. Where a person approached to contribute to a programme chooses to make no comment or refuses to appear in a broadcast, the broadcast should make clear that the individual concerned has chosen not to appear and should give their explanation if it would be unfair not to do so.

13. Where it is appropriate to represent the views of a person or organisation that is not participating in the programme, this must be done in a fair manner.

Deception, set-ups and ‘wind-up’ calls

14. Broadcasters or programme makers should not normally obtain or seek information, audio, pictures or an agreement to contribute through misrepresentation or deception. (Deception includes surreptitious filming or recording.) However:

• it may be warranted to use material obtained through misrepresentation or deception without consent if it is in the public interest and cannot reasonably be obtained by other means;

• where there is no adequate public interest justification, for example some unsolicited wind-up calls or entertainment set-ups, consent should be obtained from the individual and/or organisation concerned before the material is broadcast;

• if the individual and/or organisation is/are not identifiable in the programme then consent for broadcast will not be required;

• material involving celebrities and those in the public eye can be used without consent for broadcast, but it should not be used without a public interest justification if it is likely to result in unjustified public ridicule or personal distress. (Normally, therefore such contributions should be pre-recorded.)

Section Six: Elections and Referendums

Principle

To ensure that the special impartiality requirements in the Communications Act 2003 and other legislation relating to broadcasting on elections and referendums, are applied at the time of elections and referendums

Rules Programmes at the time of elections and referendums 6.1 The rules in Section Five, in particular the rules relating to matters of major political or industrial controversy and major matters relating to current public policy, apply to the coverage of elections and referendums. Programmes at the time of elections and referendums in the UK The remainder of this section only applies during the actual election or referendum period which is defined below.

Meaning of “election”: For the purpose of this section elections include a parliamentary general election, parliamentary by-election, local government election, mayoral election, Police and Crime Commissioner election, Scottish Parliament election, Welsh, Northern Ireland and London Assembly elections, and European parliamentary election.

Meaning of “referendum”: For the purpose of this section a referendum is a statutory referendum (to which the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 (“PPERA”) applies or to which section 127 of PPERA is applied) which includes a UK-wide, national or regional referendum held under the provisions of an Act of the UK Parliament or the Scottish Parliament, but does not extend to a local referendum.

6.2 Due weight must be given to the coverage of parties and independent candidates during the election period. In determining the appropriate level of coverage to be given to parties and independent candidates broadcasters must take into account evidence of past electoral support and/or current support. Broadcasters must also consider giving appropriate coverage to parties and independent candidates with significant views and perspectives.

Meaning of “election period”: For a parliamentary general election, this period begins with the dissolution of Parliament. For a parliamentary by-election, this period begins with the issuing of a writ or on such earlier date as is notified in the London Gazette. For the Scottish Parliament elections and National Assembly for Wales elections, the period begins with the dissolution of the Scottish Parliament or the National Assembly for Wales as appropriate or, in the case of a by-election, with the date of the occurrence of a vacancy. For the Northern Ireland Assembly, the London Assembly and for local government elections, it is the last date for publication of notices of the election. For European parliamentary elections, it is the last date for publication of the notice of election, which is 25 days before the election. In all cases the period ends with the close of the poll.

Meaning of “candidate”: Candidate has the meaning given to it in section 93 of the Representation of the People Act 1983 (as amended) and means a candidate standing nominated at the election or included in a list of candidates submitted in connection with it. 6.3 Due weight must be given to designated organisations in coverage during the referendum period. Broadcasters must also consider giving appropriate coverage to other permitted participants with significant views and perspectives.

 

3 Due weight must be given to designated organisations in coverage during the referendum period. Broadcasters must also consider giving appropriate coverage to other permitted participants with significant views and perspectives.

Meaning of “designated organisation” and “permitted participants”: Designated organisations and permitted participants are those that are designated by the Electoral Commission. Meaning of “referendum period”: For referendums different periods may apply. A referendum held under the Northern Ireland Act 1998 (as amended) begins when the draft of an Order is laid before Parliament for approval by each House. In the case of a referendum held under other Acts, the time at which a referendum period commences is given in the individual Acts. In the case of an Order before Parliament, the time will be given in that Order. In all cases the period ends with the close of the poll.

4. Discussion and analysis of election and referendum issues must finish when the poll opens. (This refers to the opening of actual polling stations. This rule does not apply to any poll conducted entirely by post.) BBC ODPS are not required to remove archive content for the period when the polls are open .

5.  Broadcasters may not publish the results of any opinion poll on polling day itself until the election or referendum poll closes. (For European Parliamentary elections, this applies until all polls throughout the European Union have closed.)

6 Candidates in UK elections, and representatives of permitted participants in UK referendums, must not act as news presenters, interviewers or presenters of any type of programme during the election period. BBC ODPS are not required to remove archive content for the election or referendum period.

7.  Appearances by candidates (in UK elections) or representatives (of permitted participants in UK referendums) in non-political programmes that were planned or scheduled before the election or referendum period may continue, but no new appearances should be arranged and broadcast during the period. BBC ODPS are not required to remove archive content for the election or referendum period.

Constituency coverage and electoral area coverage in elections

(Rules 6.8 to 6.12 will only apply to S4C and/or the BBC if the relevant broadcaster has adopted them under the RPA as its Code of Practice.)

8. Due impartiality must be strictly maintained in a constituency report or discussion and in an electoral area report or discussion.

Meaning of “electoral area”: Electoral area (for example electoral division, borough ward or other area) is the local government equivalent to the parliamentary term “constituency”.

9 If a candidate takes part in an item about his/her particular constituency, or electoral area, then broadcasters must offer the opportunity to take part in such items to all candidates within the constituency or electoral area representing parties with previous significant electoral support or where there is evidence of significant current support. This also applies to independent candidates. However, if a candidate refuses or is unable to participate, the item may nevertheless go ahead.

.10 Any constituency or electoral area report or discussion after the close of nominations must include a list of all candidates standing, giving first names, surnames and the name of the party they represent or, if they are standing independently, the fact that they are an independent candidate. This must be conveyed in sound and/or vision. Where a constituency report on a radio service is repeated on several occasions in the same day, the full list need only be broadcast on one occasion. If, in subsequent repeats on that day, the constituency report does not give the full list of candidates, the audience should be directed to an appropriate website or other information source listing all candidates and giving the information set out above.

11. Where a candidate is taking part in a programme on any matter, after the election has been called, s/he must not be given the opportunity to make constituency points, or electoral area points about the constituency or electoral area in which s/he is standing, when no other candidates will be given a similar opportunity.

12. If coverage is given to wider election regions, for example in elections to the Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly, Northern Ireland Assembly, London Assembly or European Parliament, then Rules 6.8 to 6.12 apply in offering participation to candidates. In these instances, all parties who have a candidate in the appropriate region should be listed in sound and/or vision, but it is not necessary to list candidates individually. However, any independent candidate who is not standing on a party list must be named. Where a report on a radio service is repeated on several occasions in the same day, the full list need only be broadcast on one occasion. If, in subsequent repeats on that day, the constituency report does not give the full list of candidates, the audience should be directed to an appropriate website or other information source listing all candidates and giving the information set out above

 

Due Impartiality and Due Accuracy and Undue Prominence of Views and Opinions

Principles

To ensure that news, in whatever form, is reported with due accuracy and presented with due impartiality. To ensure that the special impartiality requirements of the Act are complied with.

Due impartiality and due accuracy in news

1. News, in whatever form, must be reported with due accuracy and presented with due impartiality.

2. Significant mistakes in news should normally be acknowledged and corrected on air quickly (or, in the case of BBC ODPS, corrected quickly). Corrections should be appropriately scheduled (or, in the case of BBC ODPS, appropriately signaled to viewers).

3. No politician may be used as a newsreader, interviewer or reporter in any news programmes unless, exceptionally, it is editorially justified. In that case, the political allegiance of that person must be made clear to the audience.

Special impartiality requirements: news and other programmes

Matters of political or industrial controversy and matters relating to current public policy

Meaning of “matters of political or industrial controversy and matters relating to current public policy”: Matters of political or industrial controversy are political or industrial issues on which politicians, industry and/or the media are in debate. Matters relating to current public policy need not be the subject of debate but relate to a policy under discussion or already decided by a local, regional or national government or by bodies mandated by those public bodies to make policy on their behalf, for example non-governmental organisations, relevant European institutions, etc.

The exclusion of views or opinions

4. Programmes in the services (listed above) must exclude all expressions of the views and opinions of the person providing the service on matters of political and industrial controversy and matters relating to current public policy (unless that person is speaking in a legislative forum or in a court of law). Views and opinions relating to the provision of programme services are also excluded from this requirement.

5. Due impartiality on matters of political or industrial controversy and matters relating to current public policy must be preserved on the part of any person providing a service (listed above). This may be achieved within a programme or over a series of programmes taken as a whole.

Meaning of “series of programmes taken as a whole”: This means more than one programme in the same service, editorially linked, dealing with the same or related issues within an appropriate period and aimed at a like audience. A series can include, for example, a strand, or two programmes (such as a drama and a debate about the drama) or a ‘cluster’ or ‘season’ of programmes on the same subject.

6. The broadcast of editorially linked programmes dealing with the same subject matter (as part of a series in which the broadcaster aims to achieve due impartiality) should normally be made clear to the audience on air

7. Views and facts must not be misrepresented. Views must also be presented with due weight over appropriate timeframes.

8. Any personal interest of a reporter or presenter, which would call into question the due impartiality of the programme, must be made clear to the audience.

9 Presenters and reporters (with the exception of news presenters and reporters in news programmes), presenters of “personal view” or “authored” programmes or items, and chairs of discussion programmes may express their own views on matters of political or industrial controversy or matters relating to current public policy. However, alternative viewpoints must be adequately represented either in the programme, or in a series of programmes taken as a whole. Additionally, presenters must not use the advantage of regular appearances to promote their views in a way that compromises the requirement for due impartiality. Presenter phone-ins must encourage and must not exclude alternative views.

.10 A personal view or authored programme or item must be clearly signalled to the audience at the outset. This is a minimum requirement and may not be sufficient in all circumstances. (Personality phone-in hosts on radio are exempted from this provision unless their personal view status is unclear.)

Meaning of “personal view” and “authored”: “Personal view” programmes are programmes presenting a particular view or perspective. Personal view programmes can range from the outright expression of highly partial views, for example by a person who is a member of a lobby group and is campaigning on the subject, to the considered “authored” opinion of a journalist, commentator or academic, with professional expertise or a specialism in an area which enables her or him to express opinions which are not necessarily mainstream.

Matters of major political or industrial controversy and major matters relating to current public policy

11 In addition to the rules above, due impartiality must be preserved on matters of major political and industrial controversy and major matters relating to current public policy by the person providing a service (listed above) in each programme or in clearly linked and timely programmes.

Meaning of “matters of major political or industrial controversy and major matters relating to current public policy”: These will vary according to events but are generally matters of political or industrial controversy or matters of current public policy which are of national, and often international, importance, or are of similar significance within a smaller broadcast area.

12. In dealing with matters of major political and industrial controversy and major matters relating to current public policy an appropriately wide range of significant views must be included and given due weight in each programme or in clearly linked and timely programmes. Views and facts must not be misrepresented.

The prevention of undue prominence of views and opinions on matters of political or industrial controversy and matters relating to current public policy

13 Broadcasters should not give undue prominence to the views and opinions of particular persons or bodies on matters of political or industrial controversy and matters relating to current public policy in all the programmes included in any service (listed above) taken as a whole.

Meaning of “undue prominence of views and opinions”: Undue prominence is a significant imbalance of views aired within coverage of matters of political or industrial controversy or matters relating to current public policy.

Meaning of “programmes included in any service…Taken as a whole”: Programmes included in any service taken as a whole means all programming on a service dealing with the same or related issues within an appropriate period.

Religion

Principles

  • To ensure that broadcasters exercise the proper degree of responsibility with respect to the content of programmes which are religious programmes.
  • To ensure that religious programmes do not involve any improper exploitation of any susceptibilities of the audience for such a programme.
  • To ensure that religious programmes do not involve any abusive treatment of the religious views and beliefs of those belonging to a particular religion or religious denomination.
  1. Broadcasters must exercise the proper degree of responsibility with respect to the content of programmes which are religious programmes.

2. The religious views and beliefs of those belonging to a particular religion or religious denomination must not be subject to abusive treatment.

3. Where a religion or religious denomination is the subject, or one of the subjects, of a religious programme, then the identity of the religion and/or denomination must be clear to the audience.

4. Religious programmes must not seek to promote religious views or beliefs by stealth.

5. Religious programmes on television services or BBC ODPS must not seek recruits. This does not apply to specialist religious television services. Religious programmes on radio services may seek recruits.

6. Religious programmes must not improperly exploit any susceptibilities of the audience.

7. Religious programmes that contain claims that a living person (or group) has special powers or abilities must treat such claims with due objectivity and must not broadcast such claims when significant numbers of children may be expected to be watching (in the case of television), or when children are particularly likely to be listening (in the case of radio), or when content is likely to be accessed by children (in the case of BBC ODPS)

 

Section three: Crime, disorder, hatred and abuse

Principle

To ensure that material likely to encourage or incite the commission of crime or to lead to disorder is not included in television or radio services or BBC ODPS.

  1. Material likely to encourage or incite the commission of crime or to lead to disorder must not be included in television or radio services or BBC ODPS e.g how Doflamingo framed King Riku by making it look like he killed the citizens: material like that led to crime and disorder 

2. Material which contains hate speech must not be included in television and radio programmes or BBC ODPS except where it is justified by the context.

Hatred & Abuse

3. Material which contains hate speech must not be included in television and radio programmes or BBC ODPS except where it is justified by the context.

Portrayals of crime and criminal proceedings

4. Descriptions or demonstrations of how to do criminal techniques (e.g how to kill someone with your barehands) that can lead to crime must not be broadcast unless editorially justified.

5. No payment, promise of payment, or payment in kind, may be made to convicted or confessed criminals whether directly or indirectly for a programme contribution by the criminal (or any other person) relating to his/her crime/s. The only exception is where it is in the public interest.

6. While criminal proceedings are active, no payment or promise of payment may be made, directly or indirectly, to any witness or any person who may reasonably be expected to be called as a witness. Nor should any payment be suggested or made dependent on the outcome of the trial. Only actual expenditure or loss of earnings necessarily incurred during the making of a programme contribution may be reimbursed.

7. Where criminal proceedings are likely and foreseeable, payments should not be made to people who might reasonably be expected to be witnesses unless there is a clear public interest, such as investigating crime or serious wrongdoing, and the payment is necessary to elicit the information. Where such a payment is made it will be appropriate to disclose the payment to both defence and prosecution if the person becomes a witness in any subsequent trial

8. Broadcasters must use their best endeavours so as not to broadcast material that could endanger lives or prejudice the success of attempts to deal with a hijack or kidnapping