Author: baltzermusherure

EVALUATION FOR FIRST PERSON

For my first person piece, i did not have an idea about what to do, so i decided to do a topic i have covered before – homelessness. I befriended and interviewed a man who once had a home but is now homeless. He was reluctant to do the interview at first, but after becoming more chatty and relaxed, he opened up more.

I enjoyed talking to him, as it made me aware of the rising problem of homelessness and how bad some homeless people are treated.

I believe a story like this should be published in a regional newspaper and aimed towards an older audience, as younger people might not be so keen on reading about topics such as homelessness.

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First Person – From Wealthy To Homeless

The saying is true – life really does change in a flash. You can go from being the healthiest person that has never smoked to being someone diagnosed with lung cancer, or like me, someone who had a home and is now homeless.

I was born in Hull in 1986. I had a fairly good childhood as I grew up with both parents and was loved. My mother stayed at home to look after me when I was a child, and my dad worked as a civil engineer. I moved out of the house when I was 20 and got a nice flat by myself.

Later on, though, i started taking drugs because of peer pressure. A lot of my friends were doing hard drugs like Cocaine and Heroin, and so to fit in, I started doing them as well. I also began drinking a lot. At first it was not a problem, but afterward, I became very addicted.

I became so addicted to taking these drugs, that i started carrying them with me everywhere i went, just in case i wanted another dose. The police eventually caught me about a year ago, when I was sniffing cocaine in plain sight, and I got arrested for drug abuse.

To make matters worse, if you are in jail for less than 13 weeks, you get to keep your council flat. All you have to do is sign a piece of paper and your rent is paid for you. If you are in there for more than 13 weeks, you lose your flat, which is what happened to me.

I had a lot of items in my flat, like a PlayStation, a Sony Television, a  bicycle. Everything I owned was in seven bags. I left these bags in Humbercare before I went to jail. When I came out of prison, I only had three bags remaining. They just threw all my belongings away. Everything I owned was worth more than £5,000. I could have sold all of it to make more money, but instead, all I was left with was a little money and a sleeping bag.

About five months after Humbercare lost my items, I was able to buy some cheap warm clothes with the little money I had left. I felt very hopeful again, but then a group of six boys beat me and stole all my stuff. It became even harder to ask for change because I looked more like a thug with all the bruises than someone on the street.

I felt so broken, and almost went back to doing heroin and cocaine. After that, I had to swallow my pride and ask random strangers for change: it was the worst feeling ever because I felt so ashamed, and knowing I was well off before only made it worse. I sat outside restaurants on a Saturday night because I knew that was when everyone was drunk and ordering food. A lot of the people were friendly and gave me change because they were drunk, but sometimes they spilled drinks at me and yelled at me saying I should get off the streets or move out of their way.

At that time, the worst part about being homeless was not that I was on the streets, but the number of people lying about being on the streets, I always saw so many people who had jobs pretending to be homeless. They would often get caught, and people began doubting whether anyone was really homeless. It was so annoying because there were some who were really starving and did not know if and when they would eat.

I slept rough on the streets near banks, bars outside people’s houses, and shops. When December arrived, I barely had anything to keep myself warm with so I would use the little change I got from people to buy beers to help keep me warm, or at least get drunk to take my mind off the cold. That helped a little, but then my head would be pounding the next day and I would wake up in a face full of vomit with people walking past me giving me dirty looks.

I regret ever taking drugs in the first place, but life has picked up a lot since then. About two weeks ago, I managed to get some volunteer work, and a cousin of mine volunteers as well. He is helping keep me off the streets. I am also looking for a job, but I do not know what I want to do. I hope to look back in a year and laugh at all this.

 

EVALUATION FOR PROPER FEATURE

For my proper feature I chose to do a story on dating, in particular dating apps and how younger people are using them more these days and whether these apps are a better method than meeting face to face.

This was a very fun topic for me, as I was able to get a lot of differing opinions on the subject.

I added a few statistics and facts about dating to make this story seem more like a story rather than simply having interviews.

This story would be well suited for a young audience, as the story is about how dating apps are affecting their generation, however it could also be suited for an older audience, because i incuded the opinon of an elderly woman. It would be best suited for a regional publication like The Daily Mail as it concerns young people not just in Hull, but around the UK as i included facts and figures about online dating in the UK as a whole.

EVALUATION FOR REVIEW

I attended a Comicon event in the Guildhall. I was looking for ideas for a review on the internet, particularly the “What’s on – Hull City of Culture 2017” website, and the Comicon event caught my eye.

I enjoyed the event and felt I had enough to write about on it. I interviewed the person behind the event, Steve Bowman, and asked him about Comicon, how the idea came about and if he thought it was a success. Since he was the event planner, I felt it gave this story a more professional look as I talked to someone of authority regarding this particular event.

This piece would be well suited for the Hull Daily Mail, as it is about the Comicon in Hull. However, it could also be for a wider publication such as The Daily Mail, as it involved people outside of Hull such as Marvel comic book artist Russ Leach who is from South England. This story would be targeted towards a young audience, as it involved animations and comics – which the younger audience would be attracted to.

DOES BRITAIN HAVE A FREE PRESS?

We discussed whether or not Britain has a free press.

We concluded that Britain does not have a free press for the following reasons:

  1. There are too many restrictions such as Section 40, the Terrorism Act and the Espionage
  2. Privately educated white men are the ones that control the media – Six billionaires own 75.1% of combined print and online press
  3. Injunctions – Injunctions could now see journalists not publishing stories. In 2016, reporters were banned from revealing the identity of a celebrity involved in sexual affairs outside their marriage.
  4. Corporate advertisors can influence the content – Peter Oborne, former editor at The Telegraph, resigned as he was prohibited from writing about the HSBC tax scandal, since it was one of The Telegraph’s major corporate advertisers.
  5. Intelligence services manipulate the press – An example of how exactly the press are manipulated is shown by David Leigh, a former investigations editor of The Guardian. He explained how the secret service attempt to secretly spy on others: “The first is the attempt to recruit journalists to spy on other people, or to go themselves under journalistic “cover”. This occurs today and it has gone on for years.” He continued, saying how a friend of his,  Observer reporter Farzad Bazoft, was executed by Sadam Hussein for spying

EVALUATION OF DOES BRITAIN HAVE A FREE PRESS

For my CATS essay, I chose to discuss whether or not Britain has a free press. I chose this topic because I felt I could get a lot of information

At first, I knew very little on the matter: I did not fully understand what Section 40 was and how exactly it would affect free press, and in my first draft I did not even include the Investigatorsy Act or the Terrorism Act. I wrote about bias and how that would affect free press when in reality it would not affect it. It was a terrible first draft. However, after a lot of research and reading I finally began to understand more about the topic.

I included points and information about section 40, the Investigatory, Terrorism and Espionage Acts, as well as injunctions. I discussed how billionaires own the press, and how this affects press freedom, as

I feel as though I could have expanded more on some topics points, such as giving examples of how journalists might have been prejudiced and how exactly that would affect free press. That being said, i was able to give an example of a Muslim man who said he had trouble getting a job and it would have been easier if his last name was an English name.

Overall I am happy with the essay.

My research concluded that Britain does not have a free press.

The sort of grassroots local newspaper journalism which might have picked up The Grenfell Tower fire safety concerns in advance is being lost. Discuss

A fire that broke out in the Grenfell Tower killed 71 people. Before the fire, however, warnings were put on the Grenfell Action Group Blog regarding safety concerns. The blog read: “the Grenfell Action Group firmly believe that only a catastrophic event will expose the ineptitude and incompetence of our landlord, the KCTMO, and bring an end to the dangerous living conditions” (Ponsford, 2017). In the end, none of the warnings were adhered to.

The catastrophic event sparked concerns about the lack of reporting. According to Press Gazette: “The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea has a population of 160,000 but just one dedicated weekly newspaper – the Kensington and Chelsea News – and one dedicated reporter, who also covers two other London boroughs across five titles” (Mayhew, 2017).

Edward Daffarn of the Grenfell Action Group Blog expressed his grief, saying: “The question should be for you, why did you miss it? “Why aren’t our lives important enough for you?” (Newby, 2017).

Media consultant Grant Feller said he would have picked up on the incident if he was still writing for his paper: “I’m convinced that if the paper I worked on existed today there is no way that Grenfell could have happened.

“We would have been part of that community at the time. We felt part of the community. You were the glue that kept things going.”

The decline in local reporting is mainly to blame. According to research conducted by Press Gazette, in terms of newspaper coverage, London is very poorly covered: “Data detailing all the current active local newspapers in the UK reveals that London has less newspapers per million of population compared to other regions in the country” (Shackleton, 2015).

Research in 2012 by Press Gazette also found that more than 240 newspapers shut down between 2005 to 20011 (Ponsford, 2012).

In the end, nobody really knows whether or not more reporters would have made a difference in the Grenfell Tower incident. However, with the steady decline in local print publications, there is a strong argument that had there been more reporters available, the outcome might have been a lot different.

Ponsford, D. (2017). Journalists and Grenfell Tower: ‘You aren’t the guys getting the call at 2.30 in the morning when a survivor wants to cut their wrists’ – Press Gazette. [online] Pressgazette.co.uk. Available at: http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/journalists-and-grenfell-tower-you-arent-the-guys-getting-the-call-at-2-30am-in-the-morning-when-a-survivor-wants-to-cut-their-wrists/ [Accessed 5 Jan. 2018].

Mayhew, F. (2017). Journalists missed concerns raised by Grenfell residents’ blog – but specialist mag sounded alarm on tower block fire safety – Press Gazette. [online] Pressgazette.co.uk. Available at: http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/journalists-missed-concerns-raised-by-grenfell-residents-blog-but-specialist-mag-raised-alarm-on-tower-block-fire-safety/ [Accessed 5 Jan. 2018].

Newby, G. (2017). Why no-one heard the Grenfell blogger’s warnings. [online] BBC News. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/stories-42072477 [Accessed 5 Jan. 2018].

Shackleton, E. (2015). Map of UK’s local newspapers and websites reveals London news gap – Press Gazette. [online] Pressgazette.co.uk. Available at: http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/map-uks-local-newspapers-and-websites-reveals-london-news-gap/ [Accessed 5 Jan. 2018].

Ponsford, D. (2012). PG research reveals 242 local press closures in 7 years – Press Gazette. [online] Pressgazette.co.uk. Available at: http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/pg-research-reveals-242-local-press-closures-in-7-years/ [Accessed 5 Jan. 2018].

IS IT ETHICAL TO ALTER PEOPLE’S PHYSICAL APPEARANCE VIA PHOTOSHOP WITHOUT THEIR CONSENT?

The advancement in technology is great, to the point where people are able to retouch photos and edit them. However, this can cause controversy. This was clear particularly in the case of Lupita Nyong’o, where the actress discovered that the woman’s magazine, Grazia, photoshopped her hair in their November cover.

An Le, the photographer that edited Lupita’s pictures, apologised, saying: “I realise now what an incredibly monumental mistake I have made and I would like to take this time to apologise to Ms Nyong’o and everyone else that I did offend.” At this point, however, the damage had already been done. Lupita took to Instagram to chastise the photographer and the company: “I am disappointed that Grazia UK invited me to be on their cover and then edited out and smoothed my hair to fit their notion of what beautiful hair looks like.”

Some believe that photoshopping people and changing their appearance without their consent is not right, as it ultimately lies to the viewer(s). “Dishonest photographs add an unnecessary level of apprehension and turmoil that could be avoided” said photographer Maggie O’ Briant. She continued, saying that “digital retouching takes away from the photograph instead of adding to it” (O’Briant, n.d).

Not everyone believes that photo retouching is a bad idea. Becky Olstad, a photography instructor argued that photographers are not expected to follow any specific rules and that models usually sign documents consenting for their images to be edited and retouched (Ray, 2015). It can, therefore, be argued that people should know that their photos will be manipulated.

In the end, one cannot deny the psychological harm that photo editing can have on a person. Youth organisation Girl Scouts Of America surveyed over 1,000 teenage girls in 2010(Girl Scout Guide, 2010). 81% of the girls said they would prefer to see real photos or models rather than photoshopped ones, 89% said the fashion industry puts a lot of pressure on teenage girls to be thin, and a further 31% said they starved themselves in order to lose weight. Model Iskra Lawrence had her photos heavily retouched without her consent for a lingerie campaign. Taking to social media, the model wrote: “In reality seeing retouched images of myself gave me even more insecurities and body image issues because I couldn’t even look like or relate to the image of myself!” In the end, this is unethical as not only does it make the victim insecure, it sets unrealistic body expectations for people around the world.

 

Bibliography

O’Briant, M. (n.d.). Photo Retouching: Where Do We Draw the Line? – Steve’s Digicams. [online] Steves-digicams.com. Available at: http://www.steves-digicams.com/knowledge-center/photo-retouching-where-do-we-draw-the-line.html [Accessed 3 Jan. 2018].

Multari, F. (2014). Why I’ll Photoshop Your Face and Why I Believe It’s Okay. [online] PetaPixel. Available at: https://petapixel.com/2014/09/14/ill-photoshop-face-believe-okay/ [Accessed 3 Jan. 2018].

Ray, A. (2015). Picture Imperfect — Digital Image Manipulation Ethics. [online] Artinstitutes.edu. Available at: https://www.artinstitutes.edu/about/blog/picture-imperfect-digital-image-manipulation-ethics [Accessed 3 Jan. 2018].

 Driscoll, B. (2017). Plus-Size Model Iskra Lawrence Shares Old ‘Retouched’ Photos To Teach Vital Body Image Lesson. [online] HuffPost UK. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/plus-size-model-iskra-lawrence-shares-old-retouched-underwear-photos-to-send-powerful-body-image-message_uk_59254564e4b00c8df2a00ef3 [Accessed 3 Jan. 2018].

Girl Scout Guide. (2010). Nationwide Study Finds That Teenage Girls Have Mixed Feelings about the Fashion Industry. [online] Available at: http://www.girlscoutguide.com/2010/02/nationwide-study-finds-teenage-girls-have-mixed-feelings-regarding-fashion-industry/ [Accessed 3 Jan. 2018].

 

SOCIAL MEDIA AND SEARCH ENGINES ARE THE BIGGEST PLATFORMS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF FAKE NEWS. HOW CAN FACEBOOK AND GOOGLE CRACK DOWN ON THE PROBLEM AND SHOULD THE TECHNOLOGY GIANTS HAVE THE RESPONSIBILITY TO EXERT EDITORIAL CONTROL OVER THE NEWS THEY DELIVER TO BILLIONS OF PEOPLE?

Fake news has risen significantly over the past few years, where in 2016, a news site called “The Denver Guardian” claimed that an FBI agent responsible for the email leaks of Hillary Clinton committed suicide. Not only was this story fake, the site itself was also fake. Despite this, the story got multiple shares on Facebook and circulated quickly (Lubbers, 2016).

This and many other false news stories led to Facebook and Google taking action to reduce the amount of fake news circulating. Facebook has been working on ways to diminish the number of fake news articles. The company finds fake stories using artificial intelligence. Then the stories are sent to third parties like Politifact and Snopes that put a red flag next to a false story to notify readers that the story is fake (Tran, 2017).

One of its most recent features, the related articles tool, aims to give people more information about stories related to an article, as well as the Facebook and Wikipedia pages of the person that published the article. If the publisher does not have facebook or Wikipedia pages available, then there is a higher chance of the article being fake (Tran, 2017).

In April of 2017, Google followed in the steps of Facebook and introduced a similar fact check, to identify whether or not published stories have been fact-checked, partnering with Snopes and Politifact to expose any false claims (Summers, 2017).

Google did not stop there. The organisation later took to banning 200 publishers from its Adsense Network (Townsend, 2017).

Although their methods aim to combat fake news, the fact-checking tool, in particular, may not be as good as it seems. Commenting on Facebook’s fact-checking feature, Aaron Sharockman, executive director or Politifact, said: “We don’t have a great sense of the impact we’re having” (Levin, 2017). Robert Shooltz, who runs a satire site called RealNewsRightNow, claimed the fact-checking “had absolutely no effect.”

Combined, there are over 2 billion people using both Google and Facebook. Ultimately, it is the companies duty to ensure the news that people receive is true, as Mark Zuckerberg, CEO of Facebook stated: “While we don’t write the news stories you read and share, we also recognize we’re more than just a distributor of news.” He continued, saying the company “have a new kind of responsibility to enable people to have the most meaningful conversations and to build a space where people can be informed” (Cohen, 2016).

 

Bibliography

Lubbers, E. (2016). There is no such thing as the Denver Guardian, despite that Facebook post you saw. [online] Denverpost.com. Available at: https://www.denverpost.com/2016/11/05/there-is-no-such-thing-as-the-denver-guardian/ [Accessed 31 Dec. 2017].

Summers, N. (2017). Google will flag fake news stories in search results. [online] Engadget. Available at: https://www.engadget.com/2017/04/07/google-fake-news-fact-check-search-results/ [Accessed 31 Dec. 2017].

Tran, K. (2017). Facebook gives articles context to fight fake news. [online] Business Insider. Available at: http://uk.businessinsider.com/facebook-gives-articles-context-to-fight-fake-news-2017-10 [Accessed 2 Jan. 2018].

Levin, S. (2017). Facebook promised to tackle fake news. But the evidence shows it’s not working. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/may/16/facebook-fake-news-tools-not-working [Accessed 2 Jan. 2018].

Townsend, T. (2017). Google has banned 200 publishers since it passed a new policy against fake news. [online] Recode. Available at: https://www.recode.net/2017/1/25/14375750/google-adsense-advertisers-publishers-fake-news [Accessed 2 Jan. 2018].

Cohen, D. (2016). Facebook Adds New Weapons to Its Fight Against Fake News, Hoaxes. [online] Adweek.com. Available at: http://www.adweek.com/digital/facebook-third-party-fact-checking-fake-news-hoaxes/ [Accessed 2 Jan. 2018].

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR CATS ESSAY

BBC News. (2017). What would Section 40 do to the British press?. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/uk-politics-38629750/what-would-section-40-do-to-the-british-press [Accessed 25 Dec. 2017].

Learningonscreen.ac.uk. (2012). Home · BoB. [online] Available at: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/02DEE2CD?bcast=92102725 [Accessed 31 Dec. 2017].

BBC News. (2015). HSBC ‘helped clients dodge tax’. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-31248913 [Accessed 31 Dec. 2017].

Tories, F. (2015). Facts about UK newspapers – owned by billionaires & supporting the Tories. [online] Tomdlondon.blogspot.co.uk. Available at: http://tomdlondon.blogspot.co.uk/2015/07/facts-about-uk-newspapers-owned-by.html [Accessed 31 Dec. 2017].

Kerbaj, R., Shipman, T. and Harper, T. (2015). British spies betrayed to Russians and Chinese. [online] Thetimes.co.uk. Available at: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/british-spies-betrayed-to-russians-and-chinese-xxj7zx5n83d [Accessed 30 Dec. 2017].

team, I. (2016). Exclusive investigation: England manager Sam Allardyce for sale. [online] The Telegraph. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/09/26/exclusive-investigation-england-manager-sam-allardyce-for-sale/ [Accessed 30 Dec. 2017].

O’Carroll, L. (2012). Leveson report: key points. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/media/2012/nov/29/leveson-report-key-points [Accessed 30 Dec. 2017].

 Ponsford, D. (2015). Crisis of credibility at Telegraph as Peter Oborne says most staff have no confidence in owners or chief exec – Press Gazette. [online] Pressgazette.co.uk. Available at: http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/telegraph-facing-crisis-credibility-senior-writer-peter-oborne-says-staff-have-no-confidence-owners/ [Accessed 30 Dec. 2017].

 Oborne, P. (2015). Why I have resigned from the Telegraph. [online] openDemocracy. Available at: https://www.opendemocracy.net/ourkingdom/peter-oborne/why-i-have-resigned-from-telegraph [Accessed 30 Dec. 2017].

Censorship, I. (2017). What is Section 40 of the Crime and Courts Act 2013?. [online] Index on Censorship. Available at: https://www.indexoncensorship.org/2017/01/section-40-crime-courts-act-2013/ [Accessed 30 Dec. 2017].

Pegg, D. (2017). Here’s what section 40 would do to the British press – and it’s not good | David Pegg. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jan/11/section-40-british-press-regulation-investigative-journalism [Accessed 30 Dec. 2017].

Evening Standard. (2010). David Yelland: ‘Rupert Murdoch is a closet liberal’. [online] Available at: https://www.standard.co.uk/lifestyle/david-yelland-rupert-murdoch-is-a-closet-liberal-6732847.html [Accessed 30 Dec. 2017].

Berry, M. and Sinclair, I. (2017). The BBC and the financial crisis: interview with Dr Mike Berry. [online] openDemocracy. Available at: https://www.opendemocracy.net/ourbeeb/ian-sinclair-mike-berry/bbc-and-financial-crisis-interview-with-dr-mike-berry [Accessed 30 Dec. 2017].

Amadeo, K. (2017). What Caused the 2008 Financial Crisis and Could It Happen Again?. [online] The Balance. Available at: https://www.thebalance.com/2008-financial-crisis-3305679 [Accessed 30 Dec. 2017].

Emersberger, J. (2013). Poll shows that UK public drastically underestimates Iraqi War deaths. [online] Spinwatch.org. Available at: http://www.spinwatch.org/index.php/issues/war-and-foreign-policy/item/5499-poll-shows-that-uk-public-drastically-underestimates-iraqi-war-deaths [Accessed 30 Dec. 2017].

Thomson, A. (2013). Poll shows public at odds with reality of Iraq war. [online] Channel 4 News. Available at: https://www.channel4.com/news/by/alex-thomson/blogs/poll-shows-public-odds-reality-iraq-war [Accessed 30 Dec. 2017].

Tweedie, N. (2002). Gaddafi’s son settles for apology in libel case. [online] Telegraph.co.uk. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1391457/Gaddafis-son-settles-for-apology-in-libel-case.html [Accessed 30 Dec. 2017].

MacAskill, E. (2016). ‘Extreme surveillance’ becomes UK law with barely a whimper. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/nov/19/extreme-surveillance-becomes-uk-law-with-barely-a-whimper [Accessed 31 Dec. 2017].

Gayle, D. (2017). ‘Downward spiral’: UK slips to 40th place in press freedom rankings. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/media/2017/apr/26/uk-world-press-freedom-index-reporters-without-borders [Accessed 31 Dec. 2017].

RSF. (2016). RSF urges UK parliament to reject menacing “Snoopers’ Charter” | Reporters without borders. [online] Available at: https://rsf.org/en/news/rsf-urges-uk-parliament-reject-menacing-snoopers-charter [Accessed 31 Dec. 2017].

RSF. (2017). Worrying moves under May’s leadership lead to dropped UK ranking in RSF’s 2017 World Press Freedom Index | Reporters sans frontières. [online] Available at: https://rsf.org/fr/node/33591 [Accessed 31 Dec. 2017].

Hopkins, S. (2015). Cops Seize Journalist’s Laptop Under Counter-Terrorism Laws. [online] HuffPost UK. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2015/10/29/bbc-journalist-secunder-kermani-has-latop-seized-under-counter-terrorism_n_8415098.html [Accessed 4 Jan. 2018].

Burrell, I. (2015). Police used the Terrorism Act to seize a Newsnight journalist’s laptop. [online] The Independent. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/police-use-terror-powers-to-seize-bbc-newsnight-journalists-laptop-a6712636.html [Accessed 4 Jan. 2018].

Campbell, D. (2017). Planned Espionage Act could jail journos and whistleblowers as spies. [online] Theregister.co.uk. Available at: https://www.theregister.co.uk/2017/02/10/espionage_law_jail_journalists_as_spies/ [Accessed 4 Jan. 2018].

Bienkov, A. (2017). This is the law that could be used to imprison journalists for publishing leaks. [online] Business Insider. Available at: http://uk.businessinsider.com/law-espionage-act-hacking-leaks-snowden-government-journalists-imprisoned-2017-2 [Accessed 4 Jan. 2018].

The Spectator. (2016). Press freedom in Britain is under attack – again | The Spectator. [online] Available at: https://www.spectator.co.uk/2016/12/britains-free-press-is-under-threat/ [Accessed 4 Jan. 2018].

Ponsford, D. (2017). Cumbria’s North West Evening Mail relaunches as The Mail and is ‘completely redesigned’ – Press Gazette. [online] Pressgazette.co.uk. Available at: http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/cumbrias-north-west-evening-mail-relaunches-as-the-mail-and-is-completely-redesigned/ [Accessed 4 Jan. 2018].

 

 European Federation of Journalists. (2016). UK Investigatory Powers Bill threatens journalistic sources and whistleblowers. [online] Available at: https://europeanjournalists.org/blog/2016/11/18/uk-investigatory-powers-bill-threatens-journalistic-sources-and-whistleblowers/ [Accessed 4 Jan. 2018].

The Sun. (2017). ‘Stretched’ police snapped playing on dodgems at Hull Fair while on duty. [online] Available at: https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/4699766/humberside-police-officers-dodgems-hull-fair/ [Accessed 4 Jan. 2018].

Corcoran, S. (2017). Sorry Sun but we think police officers had earned 5 minutes of fun at Hull Fair. [online] hulldailymail. Available at: http://www.hulldailymail.co.uk/news/sorry-sun-think-police-officers-637835 [Accessed 4 Jan. 2018].

Bowcott, O. and O’Carroll, L. (2016). Supreme court upholds ‘celebrity threesome’ injunction. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/law/2016/may/19/supreme-court-upholds-celebrity-threesome-injunction [Accessed 4 Jan. 2018].

Watson, L. (2016). Celebrity threesome case: Who is ‘PJS’ and how did he get his injunction?. [online] The Telegraph. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/05/19/celebrity-threesome-case-who-is-pjs-and-how-did-he-get-his-injun/ [Accessed 4 Jan. 2018].