Section Two: Harm and Offence

Principle

To ensure that generally accepted standards are applied to the content of television and radio services to provide adequate protection for members of the public from harmful and/ or offensive material.

Rules

Generally Accepted Standards

1. Generally accepted standards must be applied to the contents of television and radio services and BBC ODPS so as to provide adequate protection for members of the public from harmful and/or offensive material.

2. Factual programmes or items or portrayals of factual matters must not materially mislead the audience.

3. In applying generally accepted standards broadcasters must ensure that material which may cause offence is justified by the context. Such material may include, but is not limited to, offensive language, violence, sex, sexual violence, humiliation, distress, violation of human dignity, discriminatory treatment or language (for example on the grounds of age, disability, gender reassignment, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sex and sexual orientation, and marriage and civil partnership). Appropriate information should also be broadcast where it would assist in avoiding or minimising offence

 

Violence, dangerous behaviour and suicide

4. Programmes must not put material that condones or glamorises violent, dangerous or seriously antisocial behaviour and is likely to encourage others to copy such behaviour e.g in the One Piece 4kids version they show Sanji with a lollipop instead of a cigarette because they don’t want ki-ds copying Sanji smoking.  

5. Methods of suicide and self-harm must not be included in programmes except where they are editorially justified and are also justified by the context e.g when Nami was stabbing herself on her arm with the Arlong tattoo: broadcasters would need to be careful when choosing to show that

Exorcism, the occult and the paranormal

6. Demonstrations of exorcism, the occult, the paranormal, divination, or practices related to any of these that purport to be real (as opposed to entertainment) must be treated with due objectivity.

7. If a demonstration of exorcism, the occult, the paranormal, divination, or practices related to any of these is for entertainment purposes, this must be made clear to viewers and listeners e.g if some shows have paranormal activity, they must let the viewers know that the paranormal stuff is not real and is just for entertainment 

8. Demonstrations of exorcism, the occult, the paranormal, divination, or practices related to any of these (whether such demonstrations purport to be real or are for entertainment purposes) must not contain life-changing advice directed at individuals. (Religious programmes are exempt from this rule but must, in any event, comply with the provisions in Section Four: Religion. Films, dramas and fiction generally are not bound by this rule.)

Hypnotic and other techniques, simulated news and photosensitive epilepsy

9. When broadcasting material featuring demonstrations of hypnotic techniques, broadcasters must exercise a proper degree of responsibility in order to prevent hypnosis and/or adverse reactions in viewers and listeners. The hypnotist must not broadcast his/her full verbal routine or be shown performing straight to camera e.g Jango the hypnotist in OP wouldn’t be allowed to perform his hypnosis straight at the camera or he may hypnotise viewers at home

10. Simulated/made-up news (for example in drama or in documentaries) must be broadcast in such a way that the audience isn’t misled into believing they’re watching actual news

11. Broadcasters must not use techniques which exploit the possibility of conveying a message to viewers or listeners, or of otherwise influencing their minds without their being aware, or fully aware, of what has occurred.

12. Television broadcasters must take precautions to maintain a low level of risk to viewers who have photosensitive epilepsy. Where it is not reasonably practicable to follow the Ofcom guidance (see the Ofcom website), and where broadcasters can demonstrate that the broadcasting of flashing lights and/or patterns is editorially justified, viewers should be given an adequate verbal and also, if appropriate, text warning at the start of the programme or programme item.

Broadcast competitions and voting

13. Broadcast competitions and voting must be conducted fairly.

14. Broadcasters must ensure that viewers and listeners are not materially misled about any broadcast competition or voting.

15. Broadcasters must draw up rules for a broadcast competition or vote. These rules must be clear and appropriately made known. In particular, significant conditions that may affect a viewer’s or listener’s decision to participate must be stated at the time an invitation to participate is broadcast.

16. Broadcast competition prizes must be described accurately. (See also Rule 1.30 in Section One: Protecting the Under Eighteens, which concerns the provision of appropriate prizes for children.)

 

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Section 1: Protecting The Under 18s

 

PRINCIPLE = To protect the under 18s – (Children are people under the age of fifteen years.)

Scheduling and content information

  1. You must not broadcast/show any material that can seriously damage the physical, mental or moral development of people under 18    e.g One Piece has 4kids version because they can’t broadcast Sanji smoking, as it may influence them to smoke. 

 

2. In the provision of services, broadcasters must take all reasonable steps to protect people under eighteen.

 

3. Children must also be protected by appropriate scheduling from material that is unsuitable for them.

APPROPRIATE SCHEDULING =

  • the nature of the content
  • the likely number and age range of children in the audience, taking into account school time, weekends and holidays
  • the start time and finish time of the programme; • the nature of the channel or station and the particular programme
  • the likely expectations of the audience for a particular channel or station at a particular time and on a particular day.

 

4. Television broadcasters must observe the watershed.

Watershed = the time when TV programmes which might be unsuitable for children can be broadcast e.g Attack on Titan can’t be shown on TV before 9pm or after 5.30am

The watershed begins at 9pm and material unsuitable for children should not, in general, be shown before 9pm or after 5.30am.
5. Radio broadcasters must have particular regard to times when children are particularly likely to be listening
6. For T.V, the change to more adult material must not be so sudden at the watershed e.g changing from One Piece 4kids to AOT at exactly 9pm.  For television, the strongest material should appear later in the schedule
  • For radio, the change to more adult material must not be so sudden after the time when children are particularly likely to be listening.  For television, the strongest material should appear later in the schedule

7. For T.V shows broadcast before the watershed, or for radio shows broadcast when children are particularly likely to be listening, or for BBC ODPS content that can be accessed by children, clear information about content that may distress some children should be given, if appropriate, to the audience e.g if changing from One Piece 4kids to AOT before 9pm (the watershed), a warning should be shown on the screen

The coverage of sexual and other offences in the UK involving under-eighteens

 8.  Broadcasters should be careful not to give any clues that can lead to people identifying those that aren’t yet adults (under 18s) (the defining age may differ in different parts of the UK) and who are, or might be, involved as a victim, witness, defendant or other perpetrator in the case of sexual offences featured in criminal, civil or family court proceedings e.g if Momonosuke was involved in a sexual offence, broadcasters would need to be careful to not identify him
9. When covering any pre-trial investigation into an alleged criminal offence in the UK, broadcasters should not publish the name, address, identity of school or other educational establishment, place of work, or any still or moving picture of any children involved in a criminal offence as a victim or witness e.g if Momonosuke was involved in a crime, broadcasters can’t identify him as he’s too young

Drugs, smoking, solvents and alcohol

10. The use of illegal drugs, the abuse of drugs, smoking, solvent abuse and the misuse of alcohol:

  • must not be shown in programmes made mainly for children unless there is strong editorial justification e.g in kodomo manga there should be no alcohol or smoking.
  • must generally be avoided and in any case must not be condoned, encouraged or glamorised in other programmes broadcast before the watershed (in the case of television), when children are particularly likely to be listening (in the case of radio), or when content is likely to be accessed by children (in the case of BBC ODPS) unless there is editorial justification;
  • must not be condoned, encouraged or glamorised in other programmes likely to be widely seen, heard or accessed by under-eighteens unless there is editorial justification.

 

Violence and dangerous behaviour

 

11. Violence, its after-effects and descriptions of violence, whether verbal or physical, must be appropriately limited in programmes broadcast before the watershed (in the case of television), when children are particularly likely to The Ofcom Broadcasting Code April 2017 11 be listening (in the case of radio) or when content is likely to be accessed by children (in the case of BBC ODPS) and must also be justified by the context.

 

12. Violence, whether verbal or physical, that is easily copied by children in a dangerous or harmful way:

  • must not be shown in programmes made mainly for children unless there is strong editorial justification e.g in kodomo manga there should be no violence or bloodshed
  • must not be broadcast before the watershed (in the case of television), when children are particularly likely to be listening (in the case of radio), or when content is likely to be accessed by children (in the case of BBC ODPS), unless there is editorial justification.

 

13. Dangerous behaviour, or the portrayal of dangerous behaviour, that is can be copied by children in a harmful way:

  • must not be featured in programmes made primarily for children unless there is strong editorial justification e.g in Kodomo manga they can’t show people biting their thumbs to turn into titans, or children may copy them and hurt themselves
  • must not be broadcast before the watershed (in the case of television), when children are particularly likely to be listening (in the case of radio), or when content is likely to be accessed by children (in the case of BBC ODPS), unless there is editorial justification.

 

Offensive language

14. The most offensive language must not be broadcast before the watershed (in the case of television), when children are particularly likely to be listening (in the case of radio), or when content is likely to be accessed by children (in the case of BBC ODPS).

15. Offensive language must not be used in programmes made for younger children except in the most exceptional circumstances e.g swearing and cursing shouldn’t be used in kodomo manga 

16. Offensive language must not be broadcast before the watershed (in the case of television), when children are particularly likely to be listening (in the case of radio), or when content is likely to be accessed by children (in the case of BBC ODPS), unless it is justified by the context. In any event, frequent use of such language must be avoided before the watershed.

Sexual Material

17. Material equivalent to the British Board of Film Classification (“BBFC”) R18- rating must not be broadcast at any time.

18. ‘Adult sex material’ – material that contains images and/or language of a strong sexual nature which is broadcast for the primary purpose of sexual arousal or stimulation – must not be broadcast at any time other than between 2200 and 0530 on premium subscription services and pay per view/night services which operate with mandatory restricted access. In addition, measures must be in place to ensure that the subscriber is an adult e.g if Ecchi manga is showing at 2200, the person watching must prove they’re above 18 to watch the show

19. Broadcasters must ensure that material broadcast after the watershed, or made available on BBC ODPS, which contains images and/or language of a strong or explicit sexual nature, but is not ‘adult sex material’ as defined in Rule 1.18 above, is justified by the context.

20. Representations of sexual intercourse must not occur before the watershed (in the case of television), when children are particularly likely to be listening (in the case of radio), or when content is likely to be accessed by children (in the case of BBC ODPS), unless there is a serious educational purpose. Any discussion on, or portrayal of, sexual behaviour must be editorially justified if included before the watershed, when children are particularly likely to be listening, or when content is likely to be accessed by children on BBC ODPS, and must be appropriately limited i.e Ecchi manga must not be shown before 2100 

Nudity

21. Nudity before the watershed, or when content is likely to be accessed by children (in the case of BBC ODPS), must be justified by the context.

Films, premium subscription film services, pay per view services

22. No film refused classification by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) may be broadcast, unless it has subsequently been classified or the BBFC has confirmed that it would not be rejected according to the standards currently operating. Also, no film cut as a condition of classification by the BBFC may be transmitted in a version which includes the cut material unless:

  •  the BBFC has confirmed that the material was cut to allow the film to pass at a lower category; or
  • the BBFC has confirmed that the film would not be subject to compulsory cuts according to the standards currently operating

23. BBFC 18-rated films or their equivalent must not be broadcast before 2100, on any service (except for pay per view services), and even then they may be unsuitable for broadcast at that time.

24. Premium subscription film services may broadcast up to BBFC 15-rated films or their equivalent, at any time of day provided that mandatory restricted access is in place pre-2000 and post-0530. In addition, those security systems which are in place to protect children must be clearly explained to all subscribers.

25. Pay per view services may broadcast up to BBFC 18-rated films or their equivalent, at any time of day provided that mandatory restricted access is in place pre-2100 and post-0530. In addition

  • information must be provided about programme content that will assist adults to assess its suitability for children;
  •  there must be a detailed billing system for subscribers which clearly itemises all viewing including viewing times and dates; and
  • those security systems which are in place to protect children must be clearly explained to all subscribers.

26. BBFC R18-rated films must not be broadcast

Exorcism, the occult and the paranormal

27. Demonstrations of exorcisms, occult practices and the paranormal (which purport to be real), must not be shown before the watershed (in the case of television) or when children are particularly likely to be listening (in the case of radio), or when content is likely to be accessed by children (in the case of BBC ODPS).

Paranormal practices which are for entertainment purposes must not be broadcast when significant numbers of children may be expected to be watching, or are particularly likely to be listening, or when content is likely to be accessed by children (in the case of BBC ODPS), (This rule does not apply to drama, film or comedy.)

The involvement of people under eighteen in programmes

28. Due care must be taken over the physical and emotional welfare and the dignity of people under eighteen who take part or are otherwise involved in programmes. This is irrespective of any consent given by the participant or by a parent, guardian or other person over the age of eighteen in loco parentis.

29. People under eighteen must not be caused unnecessary distress or anxiety by their involvement in programmes or by the broadcast of those programmes.

30. Prizes aimed at children must be appropriate to the age range of both the target audience and the participants.

8 Ways A Feature is Different From A News Story

LONGER= A feature should be longer, because people want explanations, opinions and a little entertainment e.g the narrator in HXH described the fight between Netero and Meruem in great detail, which made the fight even more exciting and dramatic.

LOOKS DIFFERENT=

MORE INDIVIDUAL= A feature usually has interpretation, analysis and even comment.

MULTI-SOURCED= A feature needs several sources to make it more holistic.

STRUCTURE= A feature makes a tower shape – the top, middle and bottom are different, but are important in their own ways.

ENDINGS ARE STRONGER= A feature usually ends with a bang, as the story is long, it would be a disappointment if readers were left in suspense from a cliffhanger, so thr story must end well.

INTROS ARE VARIED= The intro to a feature aims to tease or amuse the reader into continuing to read the story.

THEMATIC=

What Is A Feature?

FEATURE= An article that takes an in-depth look at a story, usually written after the events that they cover.

The events that features cover are usually not current, which is why features are long, so they can give the reader more information about an event.

DIEGESIS= The telling of a story e.g The narrator of One Piece who always explains what’s happening at the beginning of each episode.

  • In journalism, news is told in a diegetic way e.g Two cars crashed killing two people on Hylton Road this morning.

MIMESIS= The showing of a story e.g

  • Features are more mimetic e.g It is 9am in the morning, metal debris is strewn across the road. In the distance the sound of sirens break the silence. The scene is of utter devastation. (In this example, the reason it is mimetic is because of the detail given)

 

Paper City

A new exhibition called Paper City has been launched in the fruit market.

The family friendly exhibition was constructed by G.F Smith, a paper company. It involves various installations done by eight artists. The installations are spread out in and around the fruit market.

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A sculpture by Richard Woods, one of the artists. 

Using standard sheet sizes of paper known as colorplan paper, Richard Woods was able to create graphic brickwork.

Francis Thomas, 33, from East Hull said: “I like that he chose red and white it goes well and it looks good.”

IMG_3500

Another installation by artist Jacqueline Poncelet titled “Island Life”

By cutting and folding the paper, she was able to create different shapes with the paper.

Betty Matthews, 39, from East Hull said: “This is my favourite one because it feels like the artist took their time getting the colours and shapes perfect.”

 

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“The Fabric of Hull” by Made Thought. 

Using all 50 colours of the colorplan range, this installation shows the relationships that G.F Smith have created over the last century.

Franklin Bascud, 23, also from East Hull said:”It’s nice to see how creative some of the people that made these are. It’s a really fun exhibition for children also.”

The exhibition is free and open until the 9th of July.

For more information please visit https://www.hull2017.co.uk/whatson/events/paper-city/.

 

The Mark Wigan Art Show

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A new exhibition called “The Mark Wigan Art Show” has been launched in The Museum of Club Culture.

The art exhibition contains a variety of different paintings, drawings, print designs on t-shirts, jeans and shoes all done by contemporary artist Mark Wigan.

Wigan, originally from Manchester, has travelled to multiple cities including New York, Vancouver, Tokyo, and London where he is considered one of the leading figures of urban Art.

When asked about how long it took to complete each individual paintings, Mark said: “On average, each painting took about 8 weeks to complete, i work very fast.

I listen to music when i work, it plays a big role. I listen to many types of music, it helps a lot when i’m drawing.”

 

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One of Mark Wigan’s pieces, available for £700. 

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Print designs on shoes

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Print designs on t-shirts

When asked about how he puts his drawings on clothing, he said:”I draw these by hand, then a company based in Leeds helps put these drawings onto clothes.”

It has not been decided when the exhibition will end, however Mark has stated he intends to keep it running for as long as possible:”The exhibition is going well. I will keep it going for as long as i can since people like it.”

For more information about the exhibition visit the Hull City of Culture website at https://www.hull2017.co.uk/whatson/events/carnivalesque-mark-wigan-art-show/

CATS EVALUATION

For my 2000 word comparison essay, i compared John Pilger and Martin Bell. I chose these two as i feel they have contributed a lot to journalism and i look up to the both of them due to their beliefs of picking a side, as opposed to traditional journalism which aims to be as unbiased as possible.

I started this essay worrying about the word count that i thought was far too much. In the end, i went slightly above 2000 words. Before this, i was worried that i would not have enough content on Martin Bell, as he is not as widely known as Pilger is. Gathering research on him was quit difficult.

In terms of comparing the two, i decided to focus on their reporting styles. This has worked to my advantage, as there was a lot of semiotics that i was able to draw from their reporting styles, discussing the denotations and connotations of different features such as their camera shots, use of language, tone of voice and colour.

Writing this essay, i spent a good amount of time using the library to as a foundation for research. Thanks to this I was able to go a lot more in depth into analysing their work. I used various examples of their work when describing their impact and describing their reporting styles. However this essay still lacks some depth to it. I do not go as in depth on the use of language, and i have barely touched on the political impact Bell had, only stating that he became an MP.

If i were to do this essay again, i would go a lot more in depth into describing their socio political impact, as well as describing the angles they chose to shoot at, and backing up more assertions i made with examples of their work.

Ultimately, i did want to go more in depth, however due to the word count, i was unable to.

News Sound Reflection

I decided to do my story on the minimum unit pricing on alcohol. I decided it was best to speak to a manager at a shop to get his views on the MUP. Needless to say, i struggled getting a hold of someone, as many retailers and shop owners were reluctant and did not want to be interviewed.

I made numerous phone calls and visited multiple shops but even still i was unsuccessful as no one wanted to be interviewed. After a few more tries, i managed to interview one of the managers of a well known store, getting to know how the MUP is affecting his store.

I got the interview just short of four minutes, which is perfect as i had a lot of content so editing was easier.

One problem, however, is that i did the interview in a room at the store and the AC was on in the background. Before the interview, i thought this might disturb my audio and so i asked for the AC to be turned off for the interview. We turned it off and it was still sounding. After 10 minutes of waiting for silence and no other free rooms available, i had to make the most of my environment and conduct the interview with the AC sounding in the background. This is not the worst sound, and throughout the entire interview there were no popping noises as i put a wind muff on the phone before conducting the interview.

Overall i am pleased with the end result. I interviewed a manager and not just a store worker, so i feel that gives more strength to the story.

Some of my written cues were too long and some were too short which makes the story inconsistent, however the cuts from the interview i selected for the interview i feel were strong, as the manager clearly and concisely explains how the MUP affects him.

If i were to do this again. i would ask stronger questions, as in the interview some of the questions i asked that i edited out were not strong. Had i asked stronger, more relevant questions, it may have lead to an even better story.

 

TV Package Reflection

I did my news story on homelessness in Hull. In the beginning i had no structure, not knowing how i was going to tackle this topic.

I decided the best way was to get in touch with a homeless organisation and ask them a few questions.

I got in touch with one, and i even managed to setup an interview. After completing the interview, i realised i had not positioned the interviewee correctly to get him facing the other direction and not the camera.

As well, i had no shots of anyone in the organisation working, such as cooking for the homeless or talking to any rough sleepers.

After some thought, i decided to get in touch with a different homeless charity. I got in touch with volunteers at the Hull Homeless outreach who were more than willing to help me get an interview.

I conducted my interview inside St Mary’s Church. Although the background was not ideal, i can justify filming there, as the organisation cook for the homeless inside a section of the church. They receive more than 50 rough sleepers a night at the Church, so i thought this would be an ideal location.

Unfortunately, on the day of the interview, it was raining and so i could not get the best shots of the volunteers serving the homeless and the camera is shaky on multiple shots despite the fact that i was using a tripod. This is because many rough sleepers had come together to eat and i had difficulty positioning myself in a place where the camera would not shake and i could get good shots of the homeless being served food – also taking the bad weather into account. However i feel my shots were relevant for the story as i speak about how the organisation helps the homeless by providing them with meals.

After conducting the interview, i then went home and started researching the statistics of homelessness in Hull, expecting to see a rise in homelessness throughout the city. However, upon researching, i found the homelessness in Hull has actually been decreasing and not increasing.

I was going to do a story on how levels of homelessness have increased, but after doing my research, i decided to I decided to do my story on how although statistics show homelessness increasing, the organisation holds opposite views as it has seen a tremendous rise in the level of homelessness (the interviewee said “The levels of homelessness have gone up tremendously” but I cut that part out as i did not want her to repeat it when I had already said it when  was voicing over the film).

Generally speaking, i think the story is okay but i could have ended it better. I ended it speaking of the objectives of the organisation, i could have ended it on something stronger.

Overall though, having interviewed someone relevant to the topic, and getting good overall shots from hours of filming, i think the outcome is good.

If i were to do this again, i would tackle this story on another angle instead of what i did. I would also do my research before going into this story, as i expected an increase of homelessness and not a decrease.

 

Is print dead, and the future of journalism purely online?

For a great number of years many have argued over a definite answer to the question: “is print dead?”

One cannot deny the fact that it is dying. Within the past ten years, according to research from Press Gazette, an estimated 300 local newspapers have been closed. In terms of advertising revenue, print is also making significant losses. Last year, the Daily Mail, Daily Telegraph, The Sun had a decrease of around 5% in ad revenue.

Nowadays as well, people are relying less on newspapers as a source of news, and are relying more on technology.

Here is an infographic showing the decline in newspaper circulations, detailing the percentage change in the average and weekly circulations.

In addition, a survey conducted by Pew Research Centre in 2016 found that 24% of adults in the USA found cable TV news to be most helpful, while 3% found local paper in print to be helpful, and 2% found the national paper in print helpful. It also found that 36% of U.S adults learned something about the election from a print newspaper. This was lower than the percentage that learned from radio (44%), digital sources (64%) or 78% from TV (Barthel, 2016).

Evidently, print is dying. However, to say that it is dead now would be incorrect. Here is an infographic based off of research conducted by Pew Research Centre, which found that 51% of those who read a newspaper read it only in print, while 5% read it on desktop only. This research shows that print is not yet dead and is widely used.

In conclusion, although print is at a severe disadvantage with ad revenue falling and more people relying on online sources and technology as a source of information, print is not yet dead. That being said, however, with constant developments in technology, and with teenagers preferring online mediums to print, all the evidence points to journalism being purely online in the future.

Bibliography

Barthel, Michael. “Newspapers: Fact Sheet”. Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project. N.p., 2017. Web. 19 May 2017.

Adeyemi, Samuel. “Is Print Media Dead”. ModernGhana.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 19 May 2017.